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                        フ ラ       申し訳ありません。ただいま工事中です。

Na Mea Ho'okani Hawai'i
ナー・メア・ホオカニ・ハワイ
ハワイの楽器
                                                                                                                                                                                                         

by Janice Kahoku Yoneda

The instruments we recognize today as Hawaiian musical instruments include many types, reflect a variety of local interests, inventive originality, and simplicity. The quality of tones, from subdued to lively, can conjure imageries of dread, solemnity, awe, fear, courage, and gaiety. Spectators and dancers of the hula are equally touched by a primitive instrument's weird hold on the emotions.

Helen Roberts describes nineteen (19) different musical instruments. Ukeke ... string bow -- the only Hawaiian string instrument Wind instruments include:

`Ohe hano ihu   bamboo nose flute
Hokiokio        gourd whistle
Pu la`i ti      leaf whistle
Pu              conch shell
Oeoe            bull roarer
Ni au kani      jew's harp
Pu`ohe          bamboo tubes

The human body is used as a percussion instrument. Other percussion instruments include:

Pahu        kettle drum
Puniu       coconut drum
Ipu         gourd or calabash drum
Ili`ili     stone castanets
Ka`eke`eke  bamboo pipes
Kala`au     sticks
Papa hehi   footboards
Uli`uli     gourd rattles
Ulili       gourd rattle on stick
Pu`ili      bamboo rattle
Kupe`e      anklets

Not all of these instruments, however, were associated with the hula. The most important instruments in hula were utilized as an accompaniment to the Ho`opa`a (chanter) and Olapa (dancer).
The instruments also marked rhythm and timing for the dancer. Many of these instruments were used for informal dancing, but the spirited pahu, puniu, and ipu were instruments for formal dance events and thus given traditional reverence.
With the advent of missionary teachings, the hula became forbidden and these instruments and their manufacture ceased to be prized and valued. Hula, however, went underground, was practiced in secret, and shared with only a few. Modern Hawai`i can thank the efforts of monarchs such as Queen Emma (consort of Kamehameha IV) and King Kalakaua for returning the prestige and contributions of hula to 19th century Hawai`i. By the 20th century, individuals such as Fred Malulani Kahea Beckley gave classes in making ancient styled hula instruments at his Beretania Street studio in Honolulu in the early 1900s. Johnny Noble, a popular musician, composer, and arranger of traditional hula songs always tried to use ancient musical accompaniments, such as the ipu, the `ili`ili, and the pu`ili, in his song compositions.
In 1878, a Portuguese immigrant, J. A. Gonzales, brought to Hawai`i the braga (braguinha), a four-string prototype of the `ukulele. Among his fellow passengers were Augusto Diaz, Jose De Espirito Santo, and Manuel Nunes. These young men were business partners in the old country, making musical instruments. They not only manufactured the first `ukulele, but performed for the royal court using the new instrument. Hawaiians at first were reluctant to familiarize themselves with this instrument. The strumming, chords, and fingering were new and difficult. King Kalakaua took a liking to the `ukulele and saw its possibilities. He commanded that singing and playing clubs be formed on all islands for royal functions. He insisted that `ukulele playing have a leading role in all such orchestras. Earnest Ka`ai, the first Hawaiian to master the `ukulele, printed chords for popular sheet music. The rest is, as they say, history. Today's hula performances will greet audiences with the melodious sounds of both traditional musical instruments and a musical ensemble of a piano, `ukulele, guitar, and steel guitar.

 



 Para cualquier consulta en Espanol (Portugues, Francais, Italiano) contacte a Keoni aljohnthays@gmail.com
For layout of the Waikiki Shell please refer to: http://www.blaisdellcenter.com/techrental/WaikikiShellGrounds.pdf.

Photos by Pete Bostwick, David Elliott, Bobby Rawlins & Associates, Keoni Hays, Joe Olivos

International Specialist - Keoni Hays
Website - Alika Jennings